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## General

#### Description

A (discrete time) dynamical system consists of a phase space X and a map T : X → X. Dynamical systems concerns studying what happens to points in X under iteration by T. (For notational purposes, write Tn(x) = T °…°T(x), the nth-fold composition of T.) The sequence of points x, T(x), T2(x), …, Tn(x), … is called the orbit of x. Some orbits may be periodic (Tn(x)=x for some n ≥ 1) whereas other orbits may be very complicated and could even be dense in X. Understanding the orbit of a given point x is generally a difficult problem (and is popularly called `chaos').
Ergodic theory takes a more qualitative approach: instead of studying the behaviour of all orbits, we are instead interested in the long-term behaviour of typical orbits. To make `typical' precise one needs to have a measure-theoretic structure on the phase space X; thus ergodic theory can also be viewed as study of dynamical systems in the presence of a measure μ. A basic result of the course is Birkhoff's Ergodic Theorem. Suppose f : X → R is a function. Consider the quantity
 lim n→∞ 1 n n−1∑ j=0 f(Tj(x)),
which is an average value of f evaluated along the orbit of x. If one regards iteration of T as the passage of time then this quantity can be thought of as a `temporal' average of f along of the orbit of x. Birkhoff's Ergodic Theorem says that for typical points (μ-almost every) x, this temporal average of f is equal to ∫f dμ, a `spatial' average of f.
Ergodic theory has many applications to other areas of mathematics. We will see many connections to problems in metric number theory. For example, we shall use Birkhoff's Ergodic Theorem to study frequencies of digits appearing in number-theoretic expansions (decimals, continued fractions, etc) of real numbers and look at normal numbers.

#### Semester

Spring 2017 (Monday, January 23 to Friday, March 31)

#### Timetable

• Mon 14:05 - 14:55

#### Prerequisites

A good knowledge of metric spaces (to undergraduate level) will be assumed (specifically: continuity, compactness). Familiarity with standard pure mathematics that is taught in UK undergraduate mathematics programmes will be assumed. A knowledge of measure theory will not be assumed and will be introduced in the lectures.

#### Syllabus

• Lecture 1: Examples of dynamical systems
• Lecture 2: Uniform distribution mod 1
• Lecture 3: Invariant measures and measure-preserving transformations
• Lecture 4: Ergodicity and mixing
• Lecture 5: Recurrence. Birkhoff's Ergodic Theorem
• Lecture 6: Topological dynamics
• Lecture 7: Entropy, information, and the isomorphism problem
• Lecture 8: Thermodynamic formalism
• Lecture 9: Applications of thermodynamic formalism: (i) Bowen's formula for Hausdorff dimension, (ii) central limit theorems.
• Lecture 10: The geodesic flow on compact surfaces of constant negative curvature

## Lecturer

 Email charles.walkden@manchester.ac.uk Phone (0161) 2755805 vcard

## Students

 Ardavan Afshar (*External) Hassan Alkhayuon (Exeter) Marco Baffetti (Nottingham) Robert Bickerton (Newcastle) Jonathan Brooks (Loughborough) Douglas Coates (Exeter) Xiaoxuan Ding (Loughborough) Daniel Evans (Liverpool) Massimo Gisonni (Loughborough) Raffaele Grande (Cardiff) Xiao Ma (Loughborough) Joel Mitchell (Birmingham) Alessandro Pezzoni (York) Kathryn Spalding (Loughborough) Anna Szumowicz (Durham) Xinyue Zhang (Loughborough)

## Bibliography

No bibliography has been specified for this course.

## Assessment

The assessment for this course will be via a single take-home paper in April with 2 weeks to complete and submit online. The rubric of the exam will be as follows:
Answer three of the four questions. If you answer more than three questions then only your three best answers will count. Each question is worth 30 marks. The total number of marks available is 90, and this will then be converted to a percentage. The pass mark is 50exam and you can use the notes provided in the course. There is no time limit, but you should expect to spend no longer than 2hrs on the exam. Submit your answers (either handwritten and then scanned, or LaTeXed) via the Magic website.

MAGIC010 Ergodic Theory exam

 Files: Exam paper Released: Monday 24 April 2017 (5.0 days ago) Deadline: Sunday 7 May 2017 (9.0 days to go) Instructions: Answer three of the four questions. If you answer more than three questions then only your three best answers will count. Each question is worth 30 marks. The total number of marks available is 90, and this will then be converted to a percentage. The pass mark is 50%. This is an open book exam and you can use the notes provided in the course. There is no time limit, but you should expect to spend no longer than 2hrs on the exam. Submit your answers (either handwritten and then scanned, or LaTeXed) via the Magic website.

## Files

Files marked L are intended to be displayed on the main screen during lectures.

Week(s) File solutions01.pdf solutions02.pdf solutions05.pdf solutions06.pdf 1 lecture01.pdf 1 slides01.pdf L 2 lecture02.pdf 2 slides02.pdf L 3 lecture03.pdf 3 slides03.pdf L 4 lecture04.pdf 4 slides04.pdf L 5 lecture05.pdf 5 slides05.pdf L 6 lecture06.pdf 6 slides06.pdf L 7 lecture07.pdf 7 slides07.pdf L 8 lecture08.pdf 8 slides08.pdf L 9 lecture09.pdf 9 slides09.pdf L 10 lecture10.pdf 10 slides10.pdf L